# Variation theory, developed by Marton and co-workers (Bowden and Marton 1998, Ference Marton has further extended these ideas with a stronger emphasis

developer using variation theory. Teachers also engaged in professional dialogue in post-lesson conferences. The variation in teachers’ understanding of and their ways of handling the object of learning turned out to be a powerful resource for the team. Lo (2009) mentioned that the LS process serves as a platform for enhancing learning amongst

Miika Marttunen. Lindsay Clare Matsumura. Paula Mayoral. Gerry McNamara.

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Originated by Ference Marton, Variation Theory allows students to The most obvious explanation of why such variations in understanding arise would be to argue that learning depends on prior knowledge. Thus the differing outcomes could be explained in terms of differing levels of knowledge or linguistic skills. Although such an argument may be true in a general way, it cannot explain the results of this Ference Marton (born Ferenc Istvan Marton 7 March 1939) is a Swedish educational psychologist who is best known for introducing the distinction between deep and surface approaches to learning, and developing phenomenography as a methodology for educational research. Ference Marton, Johan Häggström R. Huang & Y. Li (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Mathematics through Variation – Confucian Heritage Meets Western Theories - 2017-01-01 Learning to subitize the first ten numbers as a necessary condition for the development of arithmetic Necessary Conditions of Learning presents a research approach (phenomenography) and a theory (the variation theory of learning) introduced and developed by Ference Marton and taken up by his wide 1 dag sedan · Kullberg, Angelika, Ulla Runesson Kempe, and Ference Marton.

## Feb 27, 2019 Flatland by Edwin Abbott; Walter and Brown's 'The Art of Problem Posing'; Ference Marton's work; Ulla Runesson's work; Piaget's action schema

Ference Marton ）为瑞典歌德堡大学教育教授， 1998 - 2001 年香港大学杰出访问教授；现为香港大学荣誉教授及香港教育学院顾问教授。 Necessary Conditions of Learning presents a research approach (phenomenography) and a theory (the variation theory of learning) By Ference Marton. Necessary Conditions of Learning presents a research approach (phenomenography) and a theory (the variation theory of learning) introduced and developed by Ference Marton and taken up by his wide and varied following around the world—together with their practical applications in educational contexts. Dec 24, 2019 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework. Marton's Variation Theory of Learning (VToL).

### Dec 24, 2019 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework. Marton's Variation Theory of Learning (VToL). Ference Marton and his colleagues in Sweden

23 Jan 2013 1 and Ference Marton2 According to the Variation Theory of Learning (e.g. Marton and Pang 2006; Marton and Tsui 2004), to be able to This article reviews the work of Ference Marton and his group of researchers. University of What variation in learning process is there that corresponds to the variation between theory and practice is seen to be of a "technic one in Sweden and Hong Kong led by Ference Marton, and the other in former, developed by Marton's group, is known as the variation theory of learning. studies (Marton and Tsui 2004 Ference Marton , Amy Tsui . with the variation theory of learning and executed in approach and the variation theory of 28 Nov 2019 Wright and Osman, (Wright & Osman, 2018) quoted Ference Marton (1981), “ According to Variation Theory the theory, a meaning always We would like to discuss how phenomenography/variation theory can be that there will be a presentation at the conference by Professor Ference Marton. be nurtured. Key words: learning study, classroom research, variation theory by Ference Marton, who brought to the project a learning perspective based.

Ference Marton utvecklade fenomenografin som en vetenskaplig metod, en metod som är specialutvecklad just för att studera människors lärande. Sedan slutet av 90-talet har han intresserat sig för variationsteori , en teori som han till stora delar själv ligger bakom. Introduction - Variation Theory Conference Powerful ways of acting spring from powerful ways of seeing (Marton et al., 2004, p.

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2021-04-06 Ference Marton, Johan Häggström R. Huang & Y. Li (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Mathematics through Variation – Confucian Heritage Meets Western Theories - 2017-01-01 Learning to subitize the first ten numbers as a necessary condition for the … variation in the future is by experiencing variation in the present and by having experienced variation in the past.” (The abstract of a seminar given by Ference Marton at The University of Hong Kong, 21 Nov 2006) According to Marton’s Theory of Variation, discernment of critical features occurs Variation theory of learning was developed by Ference Marton of the University of Gothenburg. One of its basic tenets is that learning is always directed at something – the object of learning (phenomenon, object, skills, or certain aspects of reality) and that learning must result in a qualitative change in the way of seeing this “something” (Ling & Marton, 2011). Variation Theory, which emphasizes on the discernment of the critical aspects in the object of learning, helps students learn probability in a more efficient way.

It was originally thought up by Ference Marton (2005) and has been taken up and developed by great mathematical minds such as Anne Watson and John Mason. Again, I confess that I am not at all an expert in this field. This is described as phenomenography's "theory of variation." [9] Phenomenography allows researchers to use their own experiences as data for phenomenographic analysis; [8] [10] it aims for a collective analysis of individual experiences.

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### Variation theory is a theory of learning and experience that explains how a learner might come to see, understand, or experience a given phenomenon in a certain way. In variation theory, it is assumed that there are critical aspects of a given phenomenon that learners must simultaneously be aware of and focus on in order to experience that phenomenon in a particular way.

The variation theory stems from the concept of phenomenography. Since its emergence in the late 1990s (Marton & Booth, 1997), the theory has quickly The variation theory of Ference Marton and his collaborators has widely been used as a framework for explaining what can possibly be learned in a particular classroom and what cannot. This paper reports on an experiment that put this theory to test in the context of students’ learning of the orthographic structures of Chinese characters. Variation theory is a theory of learning and experience that explains how a learner might come to see, understand, or experience a given phenomenon in a certain way.

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### Variation theory provides a theoretical grounding to understand some of the necessary conditions of learning, so that wise pedagogical decisions can be made. This paper contributes to a deeper understanding of variation theory and its application in practice.

Using Phenomenography to The theory of variation was subsequently developed by Marton and 24 Dec 2019 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework. Marton's Variation Theory of Learning (VToL). Ference Marton and his colleagues in Sweden Ference Marton, född 1939, är professor emeritus i pedagogik vid Göteborgs universitet Sedan slutet av 90-talet har han intresserat sig för variationsteori, en teori som Pang, M.F. & Marton, F. (2005) Learning theory as teaching resource. ference.marton@ped.gu.se. Besöksadress. Läroverksgatan Om Ference Marton.